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LEAGUE FOR INDUSTRIAL RIGHTS Law and labor. Volume 1-2


Эта книга — репринт оригинального издания (издательство "New York, N.Y.: League for Industrial Rights, American Anti-boycott Association", 1919 год), созданный на основе электронной копии высокого разрешения, которую очистили и обработали вручную, сохранив структуру и орфографию оригинального издания. Редкие, забытые и малоизвестные книги, изданные с петровских времен до наших дней, вновь доступны в виде печатных книг.

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Betül Aslan The Constitutional Integration Effect of Funadamental Rights and Freedoms on the Third Person In Turkish Law


Research Paper (postgraduate) from the year 2013 in the subject Law - Public Law / Constitutional Law / Basic Rights, University of Regensburg, language: English, abstract: The constitutional integration in Turkish law is made by the constitutional harmony among all legal norms. The first stage of constitutional integration is the constitutional harmony among constitutional values. Then, the rank of legal norms is ordered in the light of the first stage. Otherwise, the view of the constitutional integration is concreted by the effect of fundamental rights and freedoms on the third person. This research aims the composition of Turkish law and German law for the new solutions on constitutional integration effect of fundamental rights and freedoms on the third person in Turkish law.

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Stefan Kirchner Human Rights Law Research in the Context of Indigenous Rights. From Classroom to Courtroom


Scientific Essay from the year 2015 in the subject Law - European and International Law, Intellectual Properties, University of Lapland, language: English, abstract: Newcomers to indigenous rights research approach the topic from different directions while legal research follows particular methods and pursues specific aims. This text is the expanded version of a lecture given to doctoral students on 26 March 2015 at the University of Lapland in the context of a seminar on indigenous issues and is meant to familiarize those who are interested in indigenous rights with concepts of and approaches to human rights research in international law in the particular context of indigenous rights. The style of the presentation has been maintained for this publication. It is aimed at researchers and students at the postgraduate and Ph.D. level but will also be useful for beginners in the field as well as practitioners. The text includes practical tips on researching international human rights law, where to find information etc., with a particular emphasis on materials which are available for free online. The text concludes with a look at questions concerning the ethics of research concerning indigenous peoples.

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Yvonne Schmidt Foundations of civil and political rights in Israel the occupied territories


Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation from the year 2001 in the subject Law - Comparative Legal Systems, Comparative Law, grade: Sehr Gut, University of Vienna, 321 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: This work intends to show how civil and political rights in Israel and the Occupied Territories are regulated, which normative standards and spiritual sources nourish them, and how written and unwritten principles are applied and interpreted by the Supreme Court of Israel in pursuance of its self-imposed duty to safeguard the individual's rights and freedoms.The legal system of Israel reflects unresolved conflicts, ambiguities of the state and difficulties connected with the process of nation-building as well as dilemmas concerning the ethnic and cultural identity of the population. From 1517 until 1917 Palestine was ruled by the Turks as part of the Ottoman Empire.In 1917 British troops conquered the territory and in 1922 the League of Nations granted to Great Britain the Mandate over Palestine. Following the establishment of the state of Israel in Palestine on 14 May 1948 a large number of British mandatory legislation was absorbed into Israel's legal system. This had and still has far-reaching, restrictive implications for the areas of administrative law and the field of human rights and freedoms.The British mandatory legislation includes security legislation - such as the Defence (Emergency) Regulations, 1945 - which empowers military commanders as wel...

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Wechtuor Kuajien Lual Human Rights and Rule of Law. South Sudan Context


South Sudan is centered with inter-ethnic and armed conflicts, they explain human rights abuses and failed rule of law, due to regime's ruthless control, symbols of army's tanks and rule with iron fist punishing anyone harshly without mercies and technicalities granting. Thus, violence dominated this country, used to pursue gun-rule where armed conflicts continue rising; at least 70 cases/ 2009 to civil war/2013 with death toll increasing, at least 1,000/2006 to >20,000/2013. This book considers human rights as protective against arbitrary of the state to do with a country in its darkest days, where human rights are constrained by state's anarchy. It analyses rule of law as bedrock for building a structure of ordered liberty and progress in civil society, provides foundation for economic development, protection of human rights and promote basic dignity. The analysis examines democracy, federalism, institutional reforms and accountability as effective mechanisms for exit from failed rule of law. This would guide the need to embark on critical issues like effective management, capacity building, maintaining law and order, provision of public goods, fair and impartial political platform.

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Mammadova Arzu Transit Rights in Petroleum Transportation Systems


In Azerbaijan the main piece of legislation regarding petroleum activities is the Subsurface Law and Law on Utilization of Energy Resources. Neither of them comprises provisions on rights and obligations for transit. With the rapid development of energy sector in Azerbaijan, the understanding of transit and rights under transit agreements is important for the further improvement of the system. This book explains how these issues are dealt with in respective agreements.

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Ruben Alvarado Common Law . Natural Rights


Common law is explored as the alternative to natural rights as a means of restricting state power. The separation of powers is weighed in the balance and found wanting as a brake on state power. The underlying root of this inability is discovered in the philosophy of natural rights. Natural rights gave birth to the separation of powers, but neither the former nor the latter has been able to restrain government. This failure is highlighted in detail, and the alternative means to the same end, the common law, is brought to the fore.

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Local Remedies in International Law


Considers customary international law and the application of the rule to, among others, human rights protection and international organizations.

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Karsten Keilhack Third Party Rights. A Comparison of English and German Law with Respect to the UNIDROIT Principles on International Commercial Contracts


Seminar paper from the year 2003 in the subject Law - Comparative Legal Systems, Comparative Law, grade: 75% (=With Distinction), Cardiff University (Großbritannien; Law School), course: Comparative Contract Law, language: English, abstract: The question as to whether a third party can be granted rights or protection based on a contract between two other parties to which the third party is a mere stranger is as old as the legal scholarship of contract law itself. Over centuries, quite different approaches to the issue have been evolved and embedded in different legal systems, each with its own characteristics and features. This essay intents primarily to analyse and compare the approaches of English1 and German Law to third party rights arising from bilateral contracts, particularly with regard to contracts for the benefit of a third party and the new Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999. However, despite this main focus, some other features related to third party involvement in mutual contracts will be considered too. In the first and the second part of this essay I will describe the modus operandi of English and German law with regard to third party rights and highlight differences and similarities. The third part of this paper concerns the approach of that what is sometimes called an international restatement of contract law, namely the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts,2 to the rights of third parties. A comparison of the English and German...

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Jana Marecková Human Rights of Persons with Mental Disabilities


Human rights of people with mental disabilities have become a subject of interest of international law only very recently. Despite intensive develop­ment in the last years, the implementation of these rights often remains unsatisfactory due to the characteristic vulnerability of persons with mental disabilities, especially when they are deprived of liberty. This book examines the development and contemporary approach of international human rights law towards persons with disabilities in the light of theoretical models of disability. It continues with evaluating the compatibility of Czech law and practice concerning the right to liberty of mentally ill persons with the principles established by the European Court of Human Rights. Conclusions drawn from these two parts suggest how the above mentioned principles as well as relevant Czech law and practice may be improved in order to advance the human rights of persons with mental disabilities. This analysis is a useful resource for professionals and policy makers in the fields of law, social work and psychiatry, as well as for persons with mental disabilities themselves.

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L.M. Doss The law of riparian rights, alluvion and fishery


Эта книга — репринт оригинального издания (издательство "Thacker, Spink", 1891 год), созданный на основе электронной копии высокого разрешения, которую очистили и обработали вручную, сохранив структуру и орфографию оригинального издания. Редкие, забытые и малоизвестные книги, изданные с петровских времен до наших дней, вновь доступны в виде печатных книг.The law of riparian rights, alluvion and fishery: with introductory lectures on the rights of littoral states over the open sea, territorial waters, bays, &c., and the rights of the crown and the littoral proprietors respectively over the fore-shore of the sea.

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Veronika Haász National Human Rights Institutions in the UN human rights framework


Master's Thesis from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Public International Law and Human Rights, grade: A, European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder), course: Jura - Internationale Menschenrechte und Humanitäres Recht, language: English, abstract: National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) are cornerstones of strong domestic human rights protection systems. They play a crucial role in the promotion and protection of human rights at the national level. Within their broad mandate, they advise governments on various human rights issues, monitor the implementation of international human rights instruments, promote the harmonisation of national law and practice with the international human rights standards, disseminate human rights information, cooperate with regional and international human rights bodies, and remedy human rights violations.However, National Human Rights Institutions are primarily domestic instruments, they increasingly engage with the international human rights mechanisms. In the last 20 years, they became the practical link between international human rights standards and their concrete application at the national level. The institutions' interaction with the UN Charter-based and Treaty-based Bodies is a relatively new phenomenon and as such, has its obstacles.In order to clarify the nature and ways of co-operation between NHRIs and the UN human rights monitoring mechanisms, this Handbook sets out the characteris...

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Lovet Ekwen Protection of C Rights in Cameroon


Master's Thesis from the year 2015 in the subject Law - Public Law / Constitutional Law / Basic Rights, University of Buea, course: Thesis, language: English, abstract: Children are human beings below the age of 18 years. They are unique and privileged since they are a vulnerable group of human beings. Children have human rights such as the right to education, health and a standard of living. These rights have to be respected and protected. The ideas that animated the children's right movement developed after the Second World War and the atrocities of the Holocaust. Children are often victims of bad treatment, negative social and cultural practices, sexual abuse and all forms of economic hazardous exploitation. This research exposes child labour as a major infringement of child rights that needs to be eliminated. Children engage in this activity out of desperation or are forced. Although they are coming from poor families, some of them have to work. Others are trafficked and forced to work in plantations while others are in commercial sexual exploitation. It therefore becomes necessary to investigate on activities violating children's rights and possible mechanisms. This work adopts the doctrinal research method which is appropriate in law. It therefore makes use of content analysis. International legal instruments protecting children's rights at the international level are discussed in relation to the various rights of children. In Cameroon, international leg...

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Alina Alexe The fundamental rights of irregular migrants in the European Union


Essay from the year 2013 in the subject Law - European and International Law, Intellectual Properties, grade: merit, Queen Mary University of London (Law Department), course: LLM, language: English, abstract: This paper examines two fundamental social rights belonging to irregular migrants: the right to work and the right to healthcare. Even though there is a lack of specific legal provisions directly applicable to this social category, the general ones, such as the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Political Rights, also concern undocumented migrants. They are analyzed from general to particular taking into consideration broad terms such as "all", 'every", "everyone", which include the specific category of undocumented migrants. The existent case law, although characterized by scarcity because of the migrants' fear of being deported when lodging claims in courts, emphasizes the fact that this social category also has rights and these rights are recognized and defended in national and European courts. The obstacles in accessing fundamental rights are also analyzed. The practical implications are taken into consideration. Ideas to improve the exercise of fundamental rights to work and healthcare by irregular migrants are suggested at the end of every chapter. Being human beings, they have the right to social protection regardless of their status.

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Syeda Jhuma, Sarwar Hossain International and National Discourse of Business C Rights. Bangladesh Perspective


Seminar paper from the year 2014 in the subject Politics - International Politics - General and Theories, , language: English, abstract: The idea of business and human rights is an emerging concept of international law. Human rights are greatly influenced, positively or negatively, by the business activities of transnational corporations, industries and business enterprises. Consequently, business and children's rights are comparatively new and evolving agenda in international human rights law. Children's rights both as right holders and stakeholders have been affected by business activities. This article focuses on two basic questions. Firstly: how business activities affect the rights of children, especially child labourer's rights in the context of Bangladesh; and secondly: whether the laws and regulations of domestic and international law is sufficient to redress the violation of children's rights. The article's premise is to find what should be the role of different actors in connection to the rights of children affected by the activities of business. The article concentrates on the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human rights, the UNICEF Global Compact and Save the Children "Children's rights and Business Principles known as CRB Principles" (May-2012) and the Committee on the Rights of the Child General Comment no.16 which deals with the obligations of states in relation to business and children's rights, Convention ...

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Barbara Lee A. The Law of Higher Education, 5th Edition. Student Version


Based on the fifth edition of Kaplin and Lee’s indispensable guide to the law that bears on the conduct of higher education, The Law of Higher Education, Fifth Edition: Student Version provides an up-to-date textbook, reference, and guide for coursework in higher education law and programs preparing higher education administrators for leadership roles. The Student Version includes the materials from the full fifth edition that most relate to student interests and are most suitable for classroom instruction. For example: The evolution of higher education law and governance Legal planning and dispute resolution The relationship between law and policy Faculty and staff employment issues, including collective bargaining Academic freedom for faculty and students Copyright basics The contract rights of students Legal issues in online education The rights of students and faculty with disabilities Campus issues: safety, registered sex offenders, racial and sexual harassment, student suicide, campus computer networks, searches of students’ residence hall rooms Hate speech and freedom of speech, including the rights of faculty and students in public universities Student organizations’ rights, responsibilities, and activities fees Governmental support for religious institutions and religious autonomy rights of individuals in public institutions Nondiscrimination and affirmative action in employment, admissions, and financial aid Athletics and Title IX FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act) Each chapter is introduced with an overview of key terms and ideas the students will encounter. In addition, the book includes a general introduction to the study of higher education law, a glossary of key legal terms, and appendices for non-law students on the American court system and on how to read court opinions. The authors have also prepared a volume of teaching materials keyed to the Student Version, available from the National Association of College and University Attorneys (NACUA). In addition, the authors will periodically update the Student Version by posting recent developments on a Web site hosted by NACUA.

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John M. Wright DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION LAW - FOURTH EDITION


Now in its 4th edition, this popular book has been fully updated to date of publication. It's a practical guide to the law of disability discrimination in the context of UK employment law. This book is for those who need to know their employment law rights and what remedies they can seek. Full of relevant case authorities, this book shows how the law is applied under both the Equality Act 2010 and the previous Disability Discrimination Act 1995. This book is for advice workers, trade unionists, employers and managers who need a quick and easy-to-read source of employment law in this area. The book is also ideal for law students who need an overview of UK employment law; and for lawyers who need to locate quickly a particular case authority and the reason for the decision.

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Julia Neumann Human Rights and Climate Change


Master's Thesis from the year 2010 in the subject Law - Comparative Legal Systems, Comparative Law, grade: B+, University of Auckland (Law Faculty), course: Climate Change Law, language: English, abstract: This paper deals with the linkage of international human rights and climate change. It focuses on the approach to deduce legal claims in the form of compensations and concrete measures from international human rights in the course of impairments through climate change.This paper shall give a short overview on the issue climate change in general, including its causes, effects and the current political strategies. It furthermore provides a synopsis on how human rights are impaired by global warming and climate change effects.Unfortunately, this essay will come to the conclusion that the international human rights approach struggles with functioning as a solitary legal basis in that context and with stepping beyond the just moral implication. Human rights' legislative potential rather lies 'in the development of more encompassing and more inclusive legal and political strategies. Human rights may advisably be instrumentalized to strengthen political debates and be used as an incitement to set up enforceable and balanced agreements on reasonable measures of equalization and support.

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Stefan Kirchner Human rights and international security


Document from the year 2008 in the subject Law - European and International Law, Intellectual Properties, , 70 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: With the advent of Human Rights in international law, several core ideas of the traditional system of international law have been challenged, such as the principle of non-interference and state sovereignty, as well as the prohibition of the use of force, especially with the decision that massive human rights violations can form a threat to international peace and security to which the UN Security Council can respond with measures according to Chapter VII of the UN Charter.While at first sight a change of paradigm in international law, or in any legal system, is not negative per se, the rules which collide with a truly effective and universal protection of HR through international law are the very rules which form the foundation for international peace and security, the primary reason for the existence of international law. While international peace and security require the stability provided by the Westphalian system, they can at the same time be endangered by massive violations of human rights. On the other hand can Human Rights only be enjoyed in times of peace while the Westphalian system can limit the effective and universal enforcement of Human Rights in cases in which the UN Security Council has failed to take action under Chapter VII.This short book is an attempt at reconciling these needs which are at ...

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Sarah Maringele The European Court of Human Rights


Diploma Thesis from the year 2014 in the subject Law - European and International Law, Intellectual Properties, grade: Befriedigend, University of Linz, language: English, abstract: PrefaceDecember 1948 is a remarkable date in the history of human rights law. It was the birth of Human Rights Law. Without exception, human rights belong to every single human being. The eighth secretary General Ban Ki-moon clearly found an adequate description to illustrate the significance of human rights while giving a speech at the 2011 Human Rights Day. Besides the significance oftheir existence he focused on their constant development and practicable usage which requires all the nations to exercise human rights. His speech can be put in one significant sentence. "But unless we know them, unless we demand they be respected, and unless we defend our right -- and the right of others -- to exercise them, they will be just words in a decades-old document." So this led to a few questions:Now, as we happen to have Human Rights Law in Europe what are the consequences regarding the jurisprudence and the legal practice in general? Further on, what are the judicial consequences in respect of violence against women?How about the acquaintance within European courts especially the European Court of Human Rights Law? Did it remain the same or are remarkable changes and developments observable?Did the development in Europe force 'us' to accommodate the understanding and meaning of what was ...

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Sarah Maringele European Human Rights Law. The Work of the Court Illustrated by an Assortment Selected Cases


In Section One of the work a brief introduction to the topic illustrates the main purpose of the disquisition and exemplifies the fundamental questions.The author emphasizes on the illustration of the International perspective of Fundamental Rights within Section Two, which is followed by an explication of the divergent legal sources and impacts of Human Rights Law; e.g.: the Charter of the United Nations, the European Bill of Rights and the European Convention on Human Rights.The next part exemplifies the ECtHR`s case-law in respect of the most significant principles and methods of interpretation by offering well discussed and analyzed case studies. The case analyzes provide the important facts, the argumentation and the conclusion of the Court, furthermore, the author allocates the dissenting opinions, critical remarks and further correlations.Within Section Four, the legal machinery and controlling mechanisms are discussed shortly. The International abandonment of violence against women is considered in Section Five, which elucidates the categories, facts and presence of physical and psychological violence against women and children, as well as the judicial approach to the given circumstances in the light of the ECHR.The last section summarizes the results and closes with an illustration of possible future developments and perspectives of European Human Rights Law.

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Leah Propst W Human Rights in the Palestinian Territories


Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2015 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Public International Law and Human Rights, grade: 1, Carlow University (College of Leadership and Social Change), course: Internship, language: English, abstract: Women have struggled and continue to struggle for equal rights in virtually every nation of the world. In areas such as education, occupational opportunities, reproductive rights, freedom of movement, political participation, and healthcare, many women around the globe face limited options and social and political restrictions that are difficult if not impossible to overcome. These difficulties are uniquely apparent in the Palestinian Territories, where a complicated geopolitical situation exacerbates the traditional limitations on the rights of Middle Eastern women.The volatile living conditions in Palestine create issues regarding women's human rights. Limited mobility and lack of access to essential resources make it difficult for women to access adequate healthcare. Daily violence and social norms create barriers in education for girls and women in the Territories. The representation of women in the civic community is minimal due to women's lack of participation in political life. And domestic violence flourishes due to legal and social norms that are exacerbated by the ongoing conflict with Israel. Women's access to the legal system and justice, already made difficult by the Sharia Law under w...

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C.H.W. Johns Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts Letters


Эта книга — репринт оригинального издания (издательство "New York, C. Scribner's sons", 1904 год), созданный на основе электронной копии высокого разрешения, которую очистили и обработали вручную, сохранив структуру и орфографию оригинального издания. Редкие, забытые и малоизвестные книги, изданные с петровских времен до наших дней, вновь доступны в виде печатных книг.Contents: The Earliest Babylonian Law; The Code of Hammurabi; Later Babylonian Law; The Social Organization of the Ancient Babylonian State; Judges, Law-Courts, and Legal Processes; Legal Decisions; Public Rights; Criminal Law; The Family Organization; Courtship and Marriage; Divorce and Desertion; Rights of Widows; Obligations and Rights of Children; The Education and Early Life of Children; Adoption; Rights of Inheritance; Slavery; Land Tenure in Babylonia; The Army, Corvee, and other Claims for Personal Service; The Functions and Organization of the Temple; and Donations and Bequests; Sales; Loans and Deposits; Pledges and Guarantees; Wages of Hired Laborers; Lease of Property; The Laws of Trade; Partnership and Power of Attorney; Accounts and Business Documents; and Babylonian and Assyrian Letters.

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Lloyd H. Barrow Team First. History of Baseball Integration . Civil Rights


The year 2017 is a special year, the seventieth anniversary of the Brooklyn Dodgers' Jackie Robinson integrating modern baseball. Robinson's successes and challenges have been documented by baseball and civil rights historians. This three-part book presents the chronological history of baseball integration along with the major civil rights events of the 1940s and 1950s. Team First focuses upon each of the sixteen Major League teams and players (with life stories) who were the first to integrate each team. Some individuals were players of the Negro League, Hall of Famers, and World Series players and others whose notable contribution was only being the first to integrate. Information about owners, general managers, and managers influenced teams' orientation about integration. Rates of integration varied by team. The final three teams to integrate happened ten years after Robinson won the 1947 Rookie of the Year Award. Find out how your favorite team approached integration. How did your team compare to other National League and American League teams? How was your favorite team influenced by early civil rights events?

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Frew Demeke Alemu The African Court of Justice and Human Rights. An Opportunity to strengthen Rights Protection


Master's Thesis from the year 2010 in the subject Law - European and International Law, Intellectual Properties, grade: A, Lund University, course: International Human Rights Law, language: English, abstract: Taking in to consideration the countless human rights violations and impunity in Africa, there is not a shred of doubt about the dire need for effective human rights protection mechanisms at continental level. This concern has mainly increased due to the Africa Commission's poor track record of enforcement of human rights norms in the region. Hence, it is in the effort to cure the ills suffered by this system that an endeavor to build a regional human rights judicial organ has been embarked on. The process of establishment of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights (ACtJHR) is also the extension of this effort which partially became successful with the transitional operation of the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights. The primary purpose of this study is, thus, to show how the ACtJHR would be relevant in promoting and protecting human rights in the continent. An attempt is also made to investigate whether the new Court will be a solution to fill the gaps left out by the African Commission in the regional human rights enforcement mechanism. In doing so, the study has made a thorough analysis of the prospects and challenges of the ACtJHR from different vantage points. It has also addressed the possible interaction between the two main regional huma...

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Nicholas Sunday Fundamental Principles of Rights, Law and Democracy


Document from the year 2013 in the subject Law - Miscellaneous, grade: A, St. Lawrence University (SCHOOL OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES), language: English, abstract: Rights and duties are correlative conceptions, that is to say, every right carries with it a corresponding obligation. They are like the two sides of a coin. Rights depend upon duties. "It is only in a world of duties that rights have significance".Also, every right requires social recognition, without such recognition, rights are empty claims. Rights do not exist in a vacuum. They require the sanction of society. A right is likewise not a selfish claim. It is a disinterested desire; it is something which is capable of universal application. In asserting my right, I am really rendering a public service and when I fight for the rights of others, I may do so at great personal loss or inconvenience to myself.Older societies as a rule did not recognize rights to any great extent. They had only petitions and charities. Modern societies on the other hand give a very important place to rights. The French Revolution did not ask for charity; it demanded the rights of men. Some, if not all, of our present day constitution's guarantee certain fundamental rights for their citizens. Rights have a tendency to grow. New rights frequently come into being, e.g. the right to work, the right to strike, and the right to retain one's job when one is on strike etc.

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Nouha Rouabah Are International Human Rights Instruments Effective In Protecting P from the Global Effects of Climate Change.


Master's Thesis from the year 2017 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Public International Law and Human Rights, grade: A, Birkbeck, University of London, language: English, abstract: This study seeks to address the issue of climate change through a human rights lens by focusing on the causes of climate change and its impacts on both the environment and human rights. It highlights the close link between capitalist industrialization and environmental degradation and explains how this consequently leads to human rights violations.This research tackles human rights approach to climate change with a special focus on international human rights instruments mainly the two international covenants, the ICCPR and the ICESCR, it seeks to understand whether they impose international obligations on states to protect human rights from the adverse effects of climate change and how those imposed duties can be enforced to effectively protect people's rights.Unfortunately, this paper will reach to the conclusion that the existing human rights law does not adequately protect human rights from the lethal threat of climate change, due to the absence of a universally recognized right to a healthy environment, moreover, despite the possibility of the extraterritorial application of the ICESCR, the political will of states to cooperate under the provisions of the covenant to face the issue of climate change seems to be also absent.

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Joint Recommendation Concerning Provisions on the Protection of Marks, and Other Industrial Property Rights in Signs, Internet


The provisions aim at providing a clear legal framework for trademark owners who wish to use their marks on the Internet and to participate in the development of electronic commerce. They are intended to facilitate the application of existing laws relating to marks, and other industrial property rights in signs on the Internet.

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Niamh Reilly Women's Human Rights


Women's Human Rights: Seeking Gender Justice in a Globalising Age explores the emergence of transnational, UN-oriented, feminist advocacy for womens human rights, especially over the past three decades. It identifies the main feminist influences that have shaped the movement liberal, radical, third world and cosmopolitan and exposes how the Western, legalist, state-centric, and liberal biases of mainstream human rights discourse impede the realisation of human rights in womens lives everywhere. The book traces the evolution of the womens human rights movement through an examination of its key issues, debates, and practical interventions in international law and policy arenas. This includes efforts to: Develop global gender equality norms via the UN Womens Convention Frame violence against women as a human rights issue Address gender-based crimes in conflict situations, include women in conflict resolution and post-conflict reconstruction, and challenge new forms of militarism Highlight the gendered human rights dimensions of widening inequalities in a context of neo-liberal globalisation Develop human rights responses to anti-feminist fundamentalist movements with a focus on reproductive and sexual rights Ultimately, Women's Human Rights reaffirms a commitment to critically reinterpreted universal human rights principles and demonstrates the vital role that bottom-up, transnational movements play in making them a reality in women's lives.

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Jeremy Bentham An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation


Jeremy Bentham was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. He became a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law, and a political radical whose ideas influenced the development of welfarism. He is best known for his advocacy of utilitarianism and animal rights, and the idea of the panopticon.His position included arguments in favor of individual and economic freedom, usury, the separation of church and state, freedom of expression, equal rights for women, the right to divorce, and the decriminalizing of homosexual acts. He also argued for the abolition of slavery, physical punishment (including that of children) and the death penalty. Although strongly in favor of the extension of individual legal rights, he opposed the idea of natural law and natural rights, calling them "nonsense upon stilts."Bentham's ambition in life was to create a "Pannomion", a complete utilitarian code of law. Bentham not only proposed many legal and social reforms, but also expounded an underlying moral principle on which they should be based.

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Joseph Rikhof The Criminal Refugee. the Treatment of Asylum Seekers with a Background in International and Domestic Law


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